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What is Battery Management System in Battery

Battery Management System

The battery management system (BMS) is a system technology guaranteeing that the charging and discharging of batteries are monitored and managed well for a more efficient delivery of operation in battery-powered devices. It is working closely with several factors of troubleshooting and controlling of charging cycle, delivery of voltage and current, temperature, and power consumption while the battery operates. For further elaboration about the characteristics of battery management systems and their impact on every battery life, we have rounded up more details about it below.

Battery Management System (BMS) Architecture

Battery Management System (BMS) Architecture

Battery management systems also come with features and architectures. Each varies depending on the control board and electronic hardware of battery packages. Here are the two common battery management system architectures:

    Centralized

    It Has only one central battery management system, which connects all battery packages inside the assembly. Troubleshooting, maintenance, and control are done through the numerous ports used to connect the battery packages. Also, it is compact and cost-effective.

    Distributed

    This type of BMS architecture can accommodate all the electronic hardware using a control board directly connected to the battery cell or module. Compared to the centralized architecture, distributed BMS does not need cables because the systems can be self-contained. Also, this is more costly than centralized, and troubleshooting the batteries can be complicated.

    Functions of Battery Management System (BMS) in Battery

    Functions of Battery Management System (BMS) in Battery

    Battery management systems play a vital role in ensuring that batteries are performing well and efficiently. The most common function of BMS is monitoring batteries’ charging and discharging operations, but there is more to it. We highlighted the 9 functions below, and let’s review how functional BMS are:

    1.  Signal Acquisition

    This is a function that contributes to measuring real-time physical conditions. It is receiving signals to supply power to devices because radio waves turn into energy. Aside from that, they are converted into digital numeric values by the battery management system for in-depth processing, transmittal, and manipulation of signals acquired.

    2.  State of Charge (SOC) Estimation

    A battery’s state of charge (SOC) indicates the cells’ current maximum capacity, and it is measured through percentages from 0% discharged to 100% charged. One of the functions of BMS is showing the battery’s estimated SOC to help avoid getting the battery overcharged or drained. Plus, it protects the battery and extends its lifespan.

    3.  State of Power (SOP) Estimation

    A battery’s state of power (SOP) is the maximum power it can absorb and vice versa within a specific period. A battery management system closely monitors the SOP by tracking real-time parameters for a more optimized and efficient operation.

    4.  State of Health (SOH) Estimation

    The state of health (SOH) determines the remaining maximum capacity of a battery from its full original state since batteries tend to degrade throughout the time of usage. BMS provides accurate diagnostics of SOH by analyzing the remaining percentage of the lithium ion battery, and it is one of the vital functions.

    5.  Insulation Detection

    The battery management system is also working on insulation detection wherein it identifies errors and faults that are already present or are still premature. This function also isolates the faults for a secured and safe continuation of battery operation.

    6.  Charging Management

    One of the most essential functions of BMS is making sure that the charging and discharging of batteries are managed and controlled well, and the target percent of charge starts at 20% to 80%. The purpose of this is to avoid overloading of energy and deep discharge, plus to control possible overheating of batteries.

    7.  Balancing Management

    In every battery operation, the cells or the battery packages must be utilized in a well-balanced usage to guarantee efficiency. It is one of the roles of BMS to fully control the energy absorbed and released by the battery over the time, maintaining equalization of all cells and packages.

    8.  National Standard Data Upload

    Battery management system also functions in accordance with the National Standard Data Upload for an easy and more accessible transmittal of data between systems. Also, this function ensures the integrity, accuracy, and consistency of data acquired and transferred.

    9.  Fault Diagnosis

    Through the battery management system, the current status of the battery can be read and processed, especially when there are discrepancies between its original values and the estimations. There is a process in BMS that detects abnormal or sudden changes in the battery parameters.

    Battery Management System (BMS) Benefits

    Battery Management System (BMS) Benefits

    In maintaining a good battery operation, BMS provides a lot of processes to guarantee it. But, how does BMS really benefit the overall performance of battery cells and packages? The answers are as follows:

      Prolonged Battery Life

      A BMS will guarantee a prolonged and enhanced battery life through taking full control on the parameters from SOC, SOH, and SOP, as well as management on the charging and discharging of batteries. There are a lot of factors that reduce the lifespan of batteries, like thermal stress, over-charging and vice versa.

        Enhanced Battery Performance

        In order for batteries to function efficiently, they will need an aid or support from BMS in monitoring the current power, voltage, and temperature. It will benefit the battery in making sure that they are performing according to their maximum potential and capabilities, with improved results during the operations.

        Improved Safety

        Overcharged batteries can cause a lot of potential hazards and risks, such as overheating, short circuits, and more. But with the presence of a battery management system, these hazards can be avoided since it can manipulate immediate solutions with its overcurrent and overvoltage protection features.

        Real-Time Diagnostics and Monitoring

        With the assistance from BMS, the battery parameters and useful data acquired can be monitored in real-time. The access covers the diagnostics on temperature, current, voltage, and charging time. Also, it can show the remaining capacity and health status of the battery pack.

        Improves Battery Efficiency

        If battery packs are protected and managed by BMS, it increases the efficiency of the battery operations, resulting in reduced waste and internal failures. An efficient battery also minimizes cost and environmental impact, and even improves the battery’s condition.

        Balances Battery Cells

        When a battery pack has multi-cells, there is a possibility of distributing imbalanced energy, and cell imbalances may cause a negative impact on the battery’s usable capacity. The assistance of BMS can avoid this from happening throughout the operation, and also to maintain an overall good health status.

        Advanced Maintenance

        Since BMS provides the necessary reports about the battery parameters, it is also beneficial in the form of giving algorithms that indicate an alarm or sign of errors and failures. It will help in the decision-making whether the battery packs need replacement, troubleshooting, or maintenance.

        What is the Use of Battery Management System (BMS)

        What is the Use of Battery Management System (BMS)

        The advantages and benefits of battery management systems are proven and tested by various industries in the electric-powered devices, tools, and vehicles. For further elaboration, we have rounded up the applications and uses of BMS:

        Industrial Machines

        The industry of machinery has been taking advantage of the advanced innovation of battery management systems through managing the highly-powered and robust battery packs. Most of the industrial BMS applications are for electric train tractions, robots, and forklifts. BMS helps in improving the batteries’ performances with less failures and issues.

        Automotive Industry

          With the growing technology working on improvements of batteries, there are a lot of key components worked on, from high-end quality to versatility and longevity. These capabilities caught the attention of the automotive companies wherein they use battery packs with BMS technology to power-up next-generation vehicles. Some car manufacturers have already introduced models that are using lithium batteries that can provide over 350V and are assisted by BMS.

          Marine Applications

          Batteries are also utilized in marine applications, especially in electric surfboards and other marine operations. The battery packs are monitored through BMS to achieve extreme safety and highly-advanced management. During marine activities, BMS are more capable of delivering the potential in all aspects of marine batteries.

          Energy Storage Systems

          There are also larger energy storage systems available in the market that store energy gathered from other sources for emergency uses. For a more optimized performance, BMS provides cutting-edge solutions and connections. It is suitable in monitoring the energy storage system when utilized for commercial and industrial applications.

          Conclusion

          Battery Management System (BMS) is a key technology to ensure the monitoring and management of battery charging and discharging process. By realizing a variety of functions such as signal acquisition, state estimation, and fault diagnosis, BMS significantly improves the efficiency, safety, and reliability of battery systems.

          Widespread applications in industrial, automotive, energy storage and other fields have shown that BMS is not only a core component of modern battery drive equipment, but also an important driving force for technological progress and sustainable development.

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